History of Gümüslük/Myndos

Myndos – the antique Gümüslük

The sometimes sleepy village is situated on the banks of one of the most beautiful bays

of the Aegean Sea.

Nobody will forget the hours he spent in one of the many restaurantssipping his tea with a view on the bay.

And this on historical territory!

The original town of Myndos was located on the mountain „Buzdag“ situated further inland.


According to the legend Mausolos is said to have addressed Diogenes, the philosopher, as he wanted the population to increase.

Diogenes gave him the wise advice to shut the gates of the town for a longer period.

But this can`t  correspond with the truth!

Nobody will leave this place without emergency!

The antique Myndos was populated first by the Lelegs on the mountain „Bozdag“.

Apollodorus, an antique writer, comments their origin with the name of the king „Lelex“.

The  Lelegs didn`t speak Greek and are said to have belonged to Pre – Indo – European population. Homer`s Ilias mentions the Lelegs as confederates of the Trojans.

During the time of the Roman Empire Myndos was used as headquarter by the murders of Caesar, Brutus and Cassius.

By the way: at that time the wine of Myndos was notorious. It is said to have been „improved“ with salt – water.

In the following years Myndos lost more and more importance.

Unfortunately the ruins of Myndos had been looted a lot.

Elderly inhabitants remember a warship during the Second World War that had been bombed by German combat pilots. It was hidden during the repairs in the bay of Gümüslük. This ship is said to have been loaded with a lot of excavation objects, especially sculptures. That might be true........

It`s nevertheless a fact, that in the past 100 years the resources of important and worth seeing mobile antiques were reduced nearly to nothing.

Plan of old Myndos
Plan of old Myndos

Eusebios of Myndos

Who will be surprised to hear that places like Gümüslük gave rise to great philosophers. Eusebios came from Myndos. He studied in Pergamon at the estimated philosopher Aidesios, who also instructed the Roman Empire Julian in philosophy in the year 351 A.D. Due to his advanced age Aidesios transferred this important task to his pupil Eusebios, who knew to impress the Emperor Julian with his extraordinary didactic talents.



Eusebios rejected the Theurgy, a form of magic, by which the gods should be made subservient to the human beings, as a fatal wrong way, with no contribution to the purification of the soul. This magic leads to insanity and absolute ruin.

Eusebios denied the possibility of the rise of the soul and ist return to the spiritual world by means of external ceremonies within the scope of rites. This could only be achieved by spiritual purification. This purification could be effected by reason. The human beeing is not dependant on divine interference, but he should be trust in the ability of soul to release itself by philosphical perception.

Silberdrachme Myndos 2. - 1. Century B.C.


Inscribtion: Mundiwin / Apollwini

A text from the year 28 makes clear that the judiciary of the town was demanded by other towns to give them advice:

Except from a Roman decree in honour of the judges of Myndos about 280:

„Agreed by the council and people, proposal of the Prytans, for which the council presented a „Probuleuma“, so that the judges, who came from Milet, Myndos and Halikarnassos were asked to decide on their unsettled contracts and therefore were honoured. As the citizens didn`t agree on the unsettled contracts one beneath the other, Philokles, the king of the Sidones, with the intention that the town live in harmony, wrote that the citizens of Myndos determined and sent excellent men to the town as to prove goodwill and readiness to reconcile the citizens: Theokles, son of Theogenes and Heraphantos, son of Artemidoros, who treated the presented conflicts fair and righteously. Some conflicts by sentence , others by reconciliation. They intended that the citizens having conflicts should be reconciled and live in a state  of peace, free of incriminations to one another. The king wrote that it should be concluded  by the council  and people, to praise the citizens of Myndos for having sent those men, to praise these men too, who had come: Theokles, son of Theogenes and Herphantos, son of Artemidoros, because........“

View from "Bozdag" (mountain) to the bay of Gümüslük with Rabbit`s Island. Here was the beginning of Myndos.
View from "Bozdag" (mountain) to the bay of Gümüslük with Rabbit`s Island. Here was the beginning of Myndos.
Myndos.  2nd-1st centuries BC.  AR Hemidrachm.  Head of Dionysos right, wearing ivy-wreath; thyrsos over shoulder / MUNDAIWN , Winged thunderbolt .
Myndos. 2nd-1st centuries BC. AR Hemidrachm. Head of Dionysos right, wearing ivy-wreath; thyrsos over shoulder / MUNDAIWN , Winged thunderbolt .